Vitamin D Hormonal Deficiency

Paul L. Reller L.Ac. / Last Updated: August 03, 2017

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Additional Information / Information Resources and Links to Scientific Studies

  1. A 2006 article from the University of California Riverside, published in the journal Endocrinology, outlines the timeline of discovery of the hormone Vitamin D - showing that discovery of its importance in calcium metabolism occurred in 1920, the discovery of its steroid hormone structure in 1932, the discovery that it became calcitriol in the kidney and had broad effects in the endocrine system in the 1960s, the discovery of the active Vitamin D receptor in the cell nucleus in 1969, the discovery that this hormone or hormones acted at Vitamin D cell nucleus receptors in over 30 types of tissues and organs in the body by 1989, and finally the discovery that rapid effects at the target cells could occur with different cellular environments generating different signaling molecules, or ligands, that were selective for either the gene expressions or rapid responses in recent years: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16946007
  2. A 2011 study of the prevalence of hormone Vitamin D deficiency in the United States, by experts at the Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania, using The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2005 and 2006, showed that the incidence of this hormonal and metabolic deficiency has risen dramatically in the last decades, from an estimated 30 percent of the total population to about 40 percent, with low income minority populations affected severely. A U.S. CDC report in 2012 reported that hormone Vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. was a public health concern, although they use criteria that establish lower levels of deficiency, but acknowledged that some guidelines of deficiency would show that nearly 95 percent of the population showed at least mild deficiency: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310306
  3. A 1987 study at the University of Michigan found that the hormone called Vitamin D3 was essential to cardiovascular health, and that simple supplementation with calcium to restore levels did not resolve problems with cardiovascular function: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/253/6/E675
  4. A 2014 multicenter study by the University of Parma School of Medicine, in Italy, the University of Texas School of Medicine, in the U.S., Uppsala University, in Sweden, and others, noted that lowered hormone Vitamin D levels were clearly associated with increased cardiovascular dysfunction, as this hormone is involved in vasodilation in women, but not in men. The conclusion by these many experts around the world was: "In older women, but not in men, (hormone) Vitamin D is positively and independently associate with EIDV (endothelium-independent vasodilation)". Of course, vasodilation lowers blood pressure: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24892991
  5. A 1988 study at the University of California reviewed the study of Vitamin D and found that these D3 hormone receptors play a very important role in hormonal regulation of the immune system, cell differentiation, metabolism, etc.: http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/abstract/2/15/3043
  6. A 2008 report from experts at Intercept Pharmaceuticals noted that the hormone Vitamin D endocrine system is proven to play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of many autoimmune diseases, enhancing the innate immune system and regulating the adaptive immune responses. This hormone, still mistakenly referred to as a vitamin, is proven to have antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory effects, and companies such as this are thus searching for synthetic hormone Vitamin D receptor agonists to treat a variety of diseases: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18594491
  7. In 2010, experts at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden noted that with rising incidence of antibiotic resistance we need to look for a more holistic and alternative solution to urinary tract infections and interstitial cystitis. They found that that the hormone Vitamin D, cholecalciferol, stimulates an endogenous antimicrobial chemical Cathelicidin in response to infection, and that when pathological bacteria growth increased, more Vitamin D and cathelicidin were produced. Many women are deficient in this hormone and it could be a valuable part of a more holistic protocol to decrease infections, even low-grade chronic infections, that contribute to overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21179490
  8. In 2015, these experts at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden noted that continuing research in prevention and treatment or urinary tract infections found that the hormones Vitamin D and estrogen were both useful in stimulating better endogenous anitmicrobial peptides. The use of liquid 5000 IU cholecalciferol as well as bioidentical estriol cream, and hormonal balancing, could play a significant role in the holistic treatment protocol for overactive bladder and pelvic pain syndromes: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828523
  9. As far back as 1995, the medical community recognized the importance of the Vitamin D3 hormone in the modulation of prostate cancer cell growth: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7621473
  10. A study by the NIH of uterine fibroid prevention, published in the medical journal Epidemiology in 2013, showed a very strong association between the hormone Vitamin D deficiency and onset of uterine fibroids: http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Abstract/2013/05000/Vitamin_D_and_the_Risk_of_Uterine_Fibroids.18.aspx
  11. A 2012 study at the University of Colorado Anschultz Medical Campus in Aurora, Colorado, U.S.A. found that hormone Vitamin D deficiency, along with selenium and zinc deficiency, and potentially Omega-3/6 essential fatty acid imbalance, were linked to postpartum depression: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22853878
  12. A 2003 study by the Mayo Clinic acknowledges the substantial scientific evidence that Vitamin D3 hormone plays as significant role in immune health, especially with autoimmune disorders: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12651965?dopt=Abstract
  13. A 2008 review of scientific study suggests that Vitamin D3 mediates a shift to a more anti-inflammatory response and increased T-cell functionality, with a call for advanced clinical trials for the treatment of the autoimmune disorder multiple sclerosis: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18177949
  14. A 2013 population-based large cohort study by the German Cancer Research Center found that hormone Vitamin D deficiency was highly associated with all causes of death and mortality, especially cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23446902
  15. A 2016 study at the Sun Yat-Sen University School of Medicine, in Guangzhou, China, found that restoring the hormone Vitamin D metabolism may play an important role in decreasing the risk of urinary bladder cancer, and is associated in this study with a 60 percent lower risk in a large population cohort study of 90,757 people: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26822497
  16. A 2009 meta-review of scientific study of the hormone Vitamin D system, by experts at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, in New York City, and at Massachusetts General Hospital, associated with Harvard Medical College, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. shows that there is consistent proof of significant association between hormone Vitamin D deficiencies of both calcidiol and calcitriol and kidney disease and deficiency, as well as cardiovascular disease and overall mortality risk. Since this hormone Vitamin D system regulates the renin-angiotensin system as well as calcium metabolism, and hormone Vitamin D receptors are seen in many cell types throughout the body, there is a clear relationship between these various pathologies associated with hormone Vitamin D deficiency. These experts conclude that even the mild hormone Vitamin D deficiency seen in the general population could play a significant, and holistic, role in a variety of disease mechanisms: http://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/20/8/1663.full
  17. A 2003 study at a Bulgarian Medical University shows that Vitamin D3 hormone deficiency is linked to insulin resistance and dysfunction, and that supplementation with high dose cholecalciferol had a significant effect in one month: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12800453?dopt=Abstract
  18. A 2016 study by experts at the Kyoto University School of Medicine, in Japan, showed that supplementation with the hormone Vitamin D cholecalciferol could prevent or help reverse insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, or diabetes, induced by the taking of antipsychotic medications, which is now widely prescribed for many conditions, and usually with cute names such as Abilify, Seroquel, Geodon, Zyprexa, Saphris, Invega: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199286
  19. A 2014 multicenter study of the proven relationship between hormone Vitamin D deficiency and obesity, at the University of Oulu Oulu Institute of Biomedicine in Finland, The University of South Adelaide in Australia, University College London in the UK, and the Imperial College London in the UK, found that a higher BMI was causally related to lower cholecalciferol (D(25(OH)D), but that no immediate effect was achieved with cholecalciferol supplementation. The Vitamin D3 hormone receptor was central to many metabolic effects associated with obesity, though, and that active D3, or calcitriol, was produced by the fat cells, and was integral to regulation of the inflammatory mediators in the fat cells. Therefore, these studies showed clearly that deficient modulation of fat cell inflammatory processes contributed heavily to increased growth of fat cells, and this was directly linked to hormone Vitamin D deficiency, but that these effects were non-linear and dependent on a large array of other molecules. The fat cells are now known to produce over 260 protein or peptide hormones and chemokines, which may interact with the hormone Vitamin D, and excess growth of fat cells may be a reason for decreased production of the hormone D3 as well. Once again, large scientific studies show the need to take a comprehensive and holistic approach to correction of these problems, and that simple allopathic approaches, such as prescribing large dosage of Vitamin D, will not work: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25009502
  20. A 2015 study at the Seoul National University College of Medicine, in Seoul, South Korea, found that severe hormone Vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with future risk of mild cognitive impairment, an early stage of Alzheimer's disease or other dementia. A population-based retrospective study showed a significantly higher development of mild cognitive impairment in aging patients with hormone Vitamin D levels less than 27: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25641087
  21. A 2014 study at Istanbul University, in Instanbul, Turkey, found that the relationship between Vitamin D deficiency and Alzheimer's disease involved much more than a simple nutrient deficiency, but rather a chronic hormonal imbalance involving the hormone Vitamin D, a quote "secosteroid that has long been misnamed". Such study shows that patients with disease pathologies related to Vitamin D deficiency must do more than just take Vitamin D to solve their problem, and a more holistic approach to hormonal balancing and restoration is needed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24413618
  22. A 2008 Australian study at the University of Queensland found that the production of the prohormone cholecalciferol in the skin is directly related to the initial store of the cholesterol metabolite 7-DHC: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science
  23. The limitations of cholecalciferol Vitamin D3 effects on the production of the D3 hormone were evident to animal researchers as far back as 1995: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7479492
  24. A 2008 study of hemodialysis patients found that 95% of them had a significant Vitamin D3 calcidiol prehormone deficiency, and that only 57% of them were restored to normal physiologic levels with high dose cholecalciferol supplementation: http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/23/12/4016
  25. A 1992 Japanese study with laboratory animals showed that standard Vitamin D supplements, ergocalciferol and 7HDC, did not metabolize to form usable Vitamin D3 cholecalciferol prohormone. Despite this study, these chemicals continued to be used until recently in most Vitamin D supplements: http://grande.nal.usda.gov/ibids/index.php?mode2=detail&origin=ibids_references&therow=235336
  26. A 2016 study by the Taibah University College of Medicine, in Medina, Saudi Arabia, Tufts Medical Center, in Boston, Massachusetts, and the Duke University Medical Center, in Durham, North Carolna, U.S.A. showed that despite the fact that hormone Vitamin D deficiency was much more prevalent in African Americans that Caucasian Americans, that the relationship between free circulating Vitamin D3 and total hormone Vitamin D did not vary systematically, and that supplementation produced the free and total hormone Vitamin D proportional to the dose and with no difference between the black and white skin populations: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194308
  27. A list of nutritional deficiencies that may be caused by commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals is available on the Virginia Hopkins website: http://www.virginiahopkinstestkits.com/nutrientdepl.html
  28. The Vitamin D Council provides a comprehensive overview of Vitamin D metabolism and supports the current opinion that cholesterol lowering drugs have played a large role in Vitamin D hormone deficiency: http://www.cholesterol-and-health.com/Vitamin-D.html
  29. Numerous studies, such as this one at the Medical College of Virginia, show that cholesterol lowering statins inhibit the biosynthesis of cholesterol at both early and late stages of the metabolism, affecting the biosynthesis of 7-dehydrocholesterol, the precursor to Vitamin D3 cholecalciferol: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1708805
  30. A 2005 study at the University of Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain, Department of Endocrinology, found that Vitamin D3 hormone deficiency and subclinical hyperparathyroidism was highly associated with obesity, and correction of the obesity with bariatric surgery did not improve this secondary condition: http://www.springerlink.com/content/c3387p46381j6113/
  31. A 2013 study at Sahlgrenska University Department of Clinical Nutrition, Goteborg, Sweden found that lipid-based hormone Vitamin D deficiency and subsequent osteoporosis was highly associated with intestinal failure in outpatients, as well as many lipid-based vitamins and nutrients. Intestinal failure is defined as a clinical condition of temporary or permanent intestinal malabsorption and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and in adults the most prevalent causes are Inflammatory Bowel Disease, bacterial overgrowth, pseudo-obstruction often linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome, anti-thrombin or Vitamin K deficiency, surgical complications, cancer, and radiation enteritis. Common malabsorption nutritional deficiencies linked to these disorders include Vitamins B12, A, D, E, K, iron, selenium, zinc, and others. Such study clearly indicates that a more holistic approach is needed in utilizing the supplement hormone Vitamin D: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23481225
  32. A 2007 study at Boston University Medical Center explains how we should get our Vitamin D3 from the sun, and some explanations for deficiency, such as overuse of sunscreen and the clothing that we wear. Lightbulbs that supply ultraviolet B rays are helpful, and some foods with D3, such as salmon, are highly depleted by commercial salmon farming methods: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123197147/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
  33. Other hormones, such as pregnenelone, which can be added to the skin with a topical cream with bioidentical pregnenelone, are involved with the Vitamin D3 precursor 7-hydroxycholesterol metabolism and may play an important role in the metabolism of Vitamin D3: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19190754
  34. Topical bioidentical hormones, such as progesterone and pregnenelone, as well as these hormones in circulation and local production, were found to exert hormonal conversions in the skin. Pregnenelone was found to be able to metabolize to Vitamin D3 derivatives with exposure to ultraviolet light: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15511223
  35. A 2013 study at the Royal Perth Hospital, in Western Australia, finally studied the variance in effects metabolically between use of the hormone Vitamin D supplement cholecalciferol and the supplement ergocalciferol. While both versions of Vitamin D decreased parathyroid hormone, ergocalciferol was less effective in increasing total active hormone Vitamin D, calcium stores, and other hormonal metabolites. Such study proves the value of liquid 5000 IU cholecalciferol supplement in clinical practice, as well as the need to restore the whole hormonal system to efficiently solve health problems related to Vitamin D deficiency. In 2016, most Medical Doctors are still treating this situation lightly and pretending that any pill supplement will work to protect their patients with diseases related to hormone Vitamin D deficiency, a systemic problem of regulation and production of the hormones, not a simple nutritional deficiency: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23792937
  36. Study of standards for oral supplementation dosage at Creighton and Boston Universities in 2003 reveal that a number of variables in the Vitamin D3 metabolism make this difficult to standardize, such as cholecalciferol storage in body tissues, conversion rates of cholecalciferol to calcidiol, and utilization from food sources, as well as hormonal changes in response to seasonal cycles. Nevertheless, it was calculated that a normal healthy adult male utilizes 3000-5000 IU of cholecalciferol daily, and that greater than 80% of this is derived from stored cholecalciferol in fat during the winter months: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/77/1/204
  37. A 2008 article in Scientific American also outlines the history of Vitamin D research, and illuminates the recent research proving that the D3 hormone is integral to healthy immune function, which stemmed from research into the success of increased sunlight exposure to cure tuberculosis in the early twentieth century: http://justdfacts.wordpress.com/2008/04/05/cell-defenses-and-the-sunshine-vitamin/
  38. A 2008 clinical trial of the hormone Vitamin D for benefits in kidney transplant patients is being conducted by the University of Vienna - this report shows that cholecalciferol D3 has shown remarkable benefits with immune modulation and kidney protective effects, with an inverse regulation of renin-angiotensin noted, and the results of the long-term clinical trial is expected to be an increased use of cholecalciferol supplementation with kidney transplants: http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/10/1/36